Facility for International Cooperation for
Inclusive & Sustainable Industrial Development

Environmentally sound management of medical wastes in India


Medical waste (infectious healthcare waste) is bio-hazardous with a potential to spread infection and has the potential for comparatively high formation and release of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs). Medical waste (MW) therefore requires safe management throughout the complete life cycle in order to safeguard public health and protect the environment.

The project aimed to reduce unintentionally produced dioxins and furans (ranked as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)) by efficient and environmentally sound management of biomedical waste and assist India in implementing its relevant obligations under the Stockholm Convention.


The main activities of the project included:

  1. Harmonization of environmental and healthcare policy and regulatory instruments through appropriate networking for creation and promotion of environmentally sound management of medical waste, disposal sector and market.
  2. Strengthening of institutional capacity for environmentally sound management (ESM) of medical waste, in particular in large, medium and small healthcare facilities in 5 selected states namely Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Punjab.
  3. Facilitation and promotion of public-private partnership (PPP) to improve support and supply capacities in medical waste management within the healthcare facility perimeter.
  4. Facilitation and promotion of PPP to improve local technological and manufacturing capacities in medical waste transport and disposal sectors with specific reference to avoid generation of PCDD/PCDF and other unintentionally produced POPs releases by applying BAT/BEP measures.
  5. Demonstration of participatory funded and integrated systems for medical waste management and disposal in 5 selected states namely Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Punjab.


  1. The project was implemented in five states (Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha and Punjab). 28 Hospitals (4 large, 8 medium and 16 small) in these states were taken up for study and capacity building under the project.
  2. One model district in each state was supported to establish an integrated biomedical waste management system.
  3. One Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility (CBMWTF) in each of the five model districts was upgraded and augmented for better medical waste treatment.
  4. Best Available Technique (BAT) (non-incineration technology) based on micro-waving was installed in 20 health care facilities.
  5. An e-learning portal on biomedical waste management was developed. Medical and paramedical curriculum was developed and rolled out to incorporate the basics of medical waste management.


Donor: Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Others Partners
  1. Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
  2. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
  3. State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)
  4. State Health and Environment Departments

Project Duration:

December 2011 – March 2021